Ropper - Display Information About Files In Different File Formats And You Can Find Gadgets To Build Rop Chains For Different Architectures (X86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS, PowerPC)

You can use ropper to display information about binary files in different file formats and you can search for gadgets to build rop chains for different architectures (x86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS/MIPS64, PowerPC). For disassembly ropper uses the awesome Capstone Framework.
NOTE: I recommend to use the dev version of ropper, because bugfixes are earlier available in dev branch.

Install
Install Capstone with PyPi:
$ sudo pip install capstone
Install filebytes with PyPi:
$ sudo pip install filebytes
Optional (not needed to run ropper just to look for gadgets):
Install Keystone:
$ sudo pip install keystone-engine
Install and execute Ropper
$ python setup.py install
$ ropper
You can also install Ropper with pip
$ pip install ropper
If you want, you can use Ropper without installation
$ ./Ropper.py
If you don't want to install filebytes, filebytes is a submodule of the ropper repository. This means you don't need to install filebytes and ropper.
$ git clone https://github.com/sashs/ropper.git
$ cd ropper
$ git submodule init
$ git submodule update
$ ./Ropper.py
THIS FEATURE IS STILL UNDER DEVELOPEMENT! Ropper has a semantic search command, which offers the possiblity to search for gadgets. Due to a dependency, this command only works with python2 on linux, but I am working on porting this dependency to python3. Since python3 is default on some systems, ropper2 can be used to execute ropper with python2.
$ ropper2 --file <afile> --semantic "<any constraint>"
The following optional dependencies are needed to use semantic search:
Install pyvex
$ sudo pip install pyvex
Install z3py
$ python scripts/mk_make.py
$ cd build
$ make
$ sudo make install

Currently Possible Constraints
reg == reg     -  assign register to another
reg == number  -  assign number to register
reg == [reg]   -  assign memory to register
reg += number/reg/[reg]
reg -= number/reg/[reg]
reg *= number/reg/[reg]
reg /= number/reg/[reg]

Constraint Example
eax==1 !ebx    - set eax to 1 and look for gadgets which does not clobber ebx


Usage
usage: Ropper.py [-h] [-v] [--console] [-f <file>] [-r] [-a <arch>]
                 [--section <section>] [--string [<string>]] [--hex]
                 [--asm <asm> [H|S|R] [<asm> [H|S|R] ...]] [--disasm <opcode>]
                 [--disassemble-address <address:length>] [-i] [-e]
                 [--imagebase] [-c] [-s] [-S] [--imports] [--symbols]
                 [--set <option>] [--unset <option>] [-I <imagebase>] [-p]
                 [-j <reg>] [--stack-pivot] [--inst-count <n bytes>]
                 [--search <regex>] [--quality <quality>] [--opcode <opcode>]
                 [--instructions <instructions>] [--type <type>] [--detailed]
                 [--all] [--cfg-only] [--chain <generator>] [-b <badbytes>]
                 [--nocolor] [--clear-cache]

You can use ropper to display information about binary files in different file formats
    and you can search for gadgets to build rop chains for different architectures

supported filetypes:
  ELF
  PE
  Mach-O
  Raw

supported architectures:
  x86 [x86]
  x86_64 [x86_64]
  MIPS [MIPS, MIPS64]
  ARM/Thumb [ARM, ARMTHUMB]
  ARM64 [ARM64]
  PowerPC [PPC, PPC64]

available rop chain generators:
  execve (execve[=<cmd>], default /bin/sh) [Linux x86, x86_64]
  mprotect  (mprotect=<address>:<size>) [Linux x86, x86_64]
  virtualprotect (virtualprotect=<address iat vp>:<size>) [Windows x86]

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --version         Print version
  --console             Starts interactive commandline
  -f <file>, --file <file>
                        The file to load
  -r, --raw             Loads the file as raw file
  -a <arch>, --arch <arch>
                        The architecture of the loaded file
  --section <section>   The data of the this section should be printed
  --string [<string>]   Looks for the string <string> in all data sections
  --hex                 Prints the selected sections in a hex format
  --asm <asm> [H|S|R] [<asm> [H|S|R] ...]
                        A string to assemble and a format of the output
                        (H=HEX, S=STRING, R=RAW, default: H)
  --disasm <opcode>     Opcode to disassemble (e.g. ffe4, 89c8c3, ...)
  --disassemble-address <address:length>
                        Disassembles instruction at address <address>
                        (0x12345678:L3). The count of instructions to
                        disassemble can be specified (0x....:L...)
  -i, --info            Shows file header [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
  -e                    Shows EntryPoint
  --imagebase           Shows ImageBase [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
  -c, --dllcharacteristics
                        Shows DllCharacteristics [PE]
  -s, --sections        Shows file sections [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
  -S, --segments        Shows file segments [ELF/Mach-O]
  --imports             Shows imports [ELF/PE]
  --symbols             Shows symbols [ELF]
  --set <option>        Sets options. Available options: aslr nx
  --unset <option>      Unsets options. Available options: aslr nx
  -I <imagebase>        Uses this imagebase for gadgets
  -p, --ppr             Searches for 'pop reg; pop reg; ret' instructions
                        [only x86/x86_64]
  -j <reg>, --jmp <reg>
                        Searches for 'jmp reg' instructions (-j reg[,reg...])
                        [only x86/x86_64]
  --stack-pivot         Prints all stack pivot gadgets
  --inst-count <n bytes>
                        Specifies the max count of instructions in a gadget
                        (default: 6)
  --search <regex>      Searches for gadgets
  --quality <quality>   The quality for gadgets which are found by search (1 =
                        best)
  --opcode <opcode>     Searchs for opcodes (e.g. ffe4 or ffe? or ff??)
  --instructions <instructions>
                        Searchs for instructions (e.g. "jmp esp", "pop eax;
                        ret")
  --type <type>         Sets the type of gadgets [rop, jop, sys, all]
                        (default: all)
  --detailed            Prints gadgets more detailed
  --all                 Does not remove duplicate gadgets
  --cfg-only            Filters out gadgets which fail the Microsoft CFG
                        check. Only for PE files which are compiled with CFG
                        check enabled (check DllCharachteristics) [PE]
  --chain <generator>   Generates a ropchain [generator parameter=value[
                        parameter=value]]
  -b <badbytes>, --badbytes <badbytes>
                        Set bytes which should not contains in gadgets
  --nocolor             Disables colored output
  --clear-cache         Clears the cache

example uses:
  [Generic]
  ./Ropper.py
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --console

  [Informations]
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --info
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --imports
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --sections
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --segments
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --set nx
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --unset nx
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --inst-count 5
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "sub eax" --badbytes 000a0d
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "sub eax" --detail
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --filter "sub eax"
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --inst-count 5 --filter "sub eax"
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --opcode ffe4
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --opcode ffe?
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --opcode ??e4
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --detailed
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --ppr --nocolor
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --jmp esp,eax
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --type jop
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --chain execve
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --chain "execve cmd=/bin/sh" --badbytes 000a0d
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --chain "mprotect address=0xbfdff000 size=0x21000"
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls /lib/libc.so.6 --console

  [Assemble/Disassemble]
  ./Ropper.py --asm "jmp esp"
  ./Ropper.py --asm "mov eax, ecx; ret"
  ./Ropper.py --disasm ffe4

  [Search]
  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search <searchstring>
  ?     any character
  %     any string

  Example:

  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "mov e?x"
  0x000067f1: mov edx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x14]; mov dword ptr [esp], edx; call eax
  0x00006d03: mov eax, esi; pop ebx; pop esi; pop edi; pop ebp; ret ;
  0x00006d6f: mov ebx, esi; mov esi, dword ptr [esp + 0x18]; add esp, 0x1c; ret ;
  0x000076f8: mov eax, dword ptr [eax]; mov byte ptr [eax + edx], 0; add esp, 0x18; pop ebx; ret ;

  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "mov [%], edx"
  0x000067ed: mov dword ptr [esp + 4], edx; mov edx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x14]; mov dword ptr [esp], edx; call eax;
  0x00006f4e: mov dword ptr [ecx + 0x14], edx; add esp, 0x2c; pop ebx; pop esi; pop edi; pop ebp; ret ;
  0x000084b8: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; ret ;
  0x00008d9b: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; add esp, 0x18; pop ebx; ret ;

  ./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "mov [%], edx" --quality 1
  0x000084b8: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; ret ;; ret ;

Use ropper in Scripts
#!/usr/bin/env python
from ropper import RopperService

# not all options need to be given
options = {'color' : False,     # if gadgets are printed, use colored output: default: False
            'badbytes': '00',   # bad bytes which should not be in addresses or ropchains; default: ''
            'all' : False,      # Show all gadgets, this means to not remove double gadgets; default: False
            'inst_count' : 6,   # Number of instructions in a gadget; default: 6
            'type' : 'all',     # rop, jop, sys, all; default: all
            'detailed' : False} # if gadgets are printed, use detailed output; default: False

rs = RopperService(options)

##### change options ######
rs.options.color = True
rs.options.badbytes = '00'
rs.options.badbytes = ''
rs.options.all = True


##### open binaries ######
# it is possible to open multiple files
rs.addFile('test-binaries/ls-x86')
rs.addFile('ls', bytes=open('test-binaries/ls-x86','rb').read()) # other possiblity
rs.addFile('ls_raw', bytes=open('test-binaries/ls-x86','rb').read(), raw=True, arch='x86')

##### close binaries ######
rs.removeFile('ls')
rs.removeFile('ls_raw')


# Set architecture of a binary, so it is possible to look for gadgets for a different architecture
# It is useful for ARM if you want to look for ARM gadgets or Thumb gadgets
# Or if you opened a raw file
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86_64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARM')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARMTHUMB')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARM64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='MIPS')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='MIPS64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='PPC')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='PPC64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86')


##### load gadgets ######

# load gadgets for all opened files
rs.loadGadgetsFor() 

# load gadgets for only one opened file
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
rs.loadGadgetsFor(name=ls)

# change gadget type
rs.options.type = 'jop'
rs.loadGadgetsFor() 

rs.options.type = 'rop'
rs.loadGadgetsFor() 

# change instruction count
rs.options.inst_count = 10
rs.loadGadgetsFor() 

##### print gadgets #######
rs.printGadgetsFor() # print all gadgets
rs.printGadgetsFor(name=ls)

##### Get gadgets ######
gadgets = rs.getFileFor(name=ls).gadgets


##### search pop pop ret ######
pprs = rs.searchPopPopRet(name=ls) # looks for ppr only in 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
pprs = rs.searchPopPopRet()        # looks for ppr in all opened files
for file, ppr in pprs.items():
    for p in ppr:
        print p

##### load jmp reg ######
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg(name=ls, regs=['esp', 'eax']) # looks for jmp reg only in 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg(regs=['esp', 'eax'])
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg()                             # looks for jmp esp in all opened files
for file, jmp_reg in jmp_regs.items():
    for j in jmp_reg:
        print j


##### search opcode ######
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='ffe4', name=ls)
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='ffe?')
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='??e4')

for file, gadgets in gadgets_dict.items():
    for g in gadgets:
        print g

##### search instructions ######
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
for file, gadget in rs.search(search='mov e?x', name=ls):
    print file, gadget

for file, gadget in rs.search(search='mov [e?x%]'):
    print file, gadget    

result_dict = rs.searchdict(search='mov eax')
for file, gadgets in result_dict.items():
    print file
    for gadget in gadgets:
        print gadget

##### assemble instructions ######
hex_string = rs.asm('jmp esp')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to hex string =', hex_string
raw_bytes = rs.asm('jmp esp', format='raw')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to raw bytes =', raw_bytes
string = rs.asm('jmp esp', format='string')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to string =',string
arm_bytes = rs.asm('bx sp', arch='ARM')
print '"bx sp" assembled to hex string =', arm_bytes

##### disassemble bytes #######
arm_instructions = rs.disasm(arm_bytes, arch='ARM')
print arm_bytes, 'disassembled to "%s"' % arm_instructions

# Change the imagebase, this also change the imagebase for all loaded gadgets of this binary
rs.setImageBaseFor(name=ls, imagebase=0x0)

# reset image base
rs.setImageBaseFor(name=ls, imagebase=None)

gadgets = rs.getFileFor(name=ls).gadgets

# gadget address
print hex(gadgets[0].address)

# get instruction bytes of gadget
print bytes(gadgets[0].bytes).encode('hex')

# remove all gadgets containing bad bytes in address
rs.options.badbytes = '000a0d'  # gadgets are filtered automatically

Project page
http://scoding.de/ropper

Screenshots









Ropper - Display Information About Files In Different File Formats And You Can Find Gadgets To Build Rop Chains For Different Architectures (X86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS, PowerPC) Ropper - Display Information About Files In Different File Formats And You Can Find Gadgets To Build Rop Chains For Different Architectures (X86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS, PowerPC) Reviewed by Lydecker Black on 9:32 AM Rating: 5